Minister for universities and science Jo Johnson signed the framework agreement with China's minister for education Yuan Guiren, the UK government said.
A total of 23 education agreements were signed at the 8th UK-China education summit, which will see UK universities and organisations working with partners in China..
The countries will work together on higher, vocational, school and sports education. There will be an increase in the number of exchanges between researchers in the UK and China to build skills and enable further collaborations, the government said.
"Our relationship with China is entering a new phase of scientific and educational collaboration on an unprecedented scale," said Johnson. "Our agreement will bring researchers together to address global challenges, change the lives of young people through better access to sports, and build partnerships across school, vocational and higher education to provide students in both countries with the right skills to become the leaders of the future."
Universities expert Martin Priestley of Pinsent Masons, the law firm behind Out-Law.com said: "This ambitious framework is further evidence of the deepening ties between UK and Chinese universities. Over the past couple of years we have seen more and more of our clients enter into exciting partnerships and joint ventures with Chinese institutions. As higher education becomes more globalised, I fully expect this trend to continue."